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# Further understanding scala.Option

Posted on August 23, 2010, in Programming

Below are 15 (probably fun) exercises for anyone interested in obtaining a deeper understanding of scala.Option and algebraic data types in general. I could write the same in Haskell but this will require either type-classes or rank-n types (GHC extension), so I thought I’d give that a miss.

Instructions are in the comments. Let me know if there are any questions.

// Scala version 2.8.0.final

/*

Below are 15 exercises. The task is to emulate the scala.Option API
without using Some/None subtypes, but instead using a fold (called a
catamorphism).

A couple of functions are already done (map, get)
to be used as an example. ScalaCheck tests are given below to
verify the work. The desired result is to have all tests passing.

The 15th exercise is not available in the existing Scala API so
instructions are given in the comments.

Revision History
================

23/08/2010
Initial revision

----------------

23/08/2010
Fixed prop_getOrElse. Thanks Michael Bayne.

----------------

26/08/2010
Add lazy annotation to orElse method.

*/

trait Optional[A] {
// single abstract method
def fold[X](some: A => X, none: => X): X

import Optional._

// Done for you.
def map[B](f: A => B): Optional[B] =
fold(f andThen some, none[B])

// Done for you.
// WARNING: undefined for None
def get: A =
fold(a => a, error("None.get"))

// Exercise 1
def flatMap[B](f: A => Optional[B]): Optional[B] =
error("todo")

// Exercise 2
// Rewrite map but use flatMap, not fold.
def mapAgain[B](f: A => B): Optional[B] =
error("todo")

// Exercise 3
def getOrElse(e: => A): A =
error("todo")

// Exercise 4
def filter(p: A => Boolean): Optional[A] =
error("todo")

// Exercise 5
def exists(p: A => Boolean): Boolean =
error("todo")

// Exercise 6
def forall(p: A => Boolean): Boolean =
error("todo")

// Exercise 7
def foreach(f: A => Unit): Unit =
error("todo")

// Exercise 8
def isDefined: Boolean =
error("todo")

// Exercise 9
def isEmpty: Boolean =
error("todo")

// Exercise 10
def orElse(o: => Optional[A]): Optional[A] =
error("todo")

// Exercise 11
def toLeft[X](right: => X): Either[A, X] =
error("todo")

// Exercise 12
def toRight[X](left: => X): Either[X, A] =
error("todo")

// Exercise 13
def toList: List[A] =
error("todo")

// Exercise 14
def iterator: Iterator[A] =
error("todo")

// Exercise 15 The Clincher!
// Return a none value if either this or the argument is none.
// Otherwise apply the function to the argument in some.
// Don't be afraid to use functions you have written.
// Better style, more points!
def applic[B](f: Optional[A => B]): Optional[B] =
error("todo")

// Utility
def toOption: Option[A] = fold(Some(_), None)
}

object Optional {
// Done for you
def none[A]: Optional[A] = new Optional[A] {
def fold[X](some: A => X, none: => X) = none
}

// Done for you
def some[A](a: A): Optional[A] = new Optional[A] {
def fold[X](some: A => X, none: => X) = some(a)
}

// Utility
def fromOption[A](o: Option[A]): Optional[A] = o match {
case None    => none
case Some(a) => some(a)
}
}

import org.scalacheck._
import Arbitrary.arbitrary
import Prop._

object TestOptional {
import Optional._

implicit def ArbitraryOptional[A](implicit a: Arbitrary[A]): Arbitrary[Optional[A]] =
Arbitrary(arbitrary[Option[A]] map fromOption)

val prop_map = forAll ((o: Optional[Int], f: Int => String) =>
(o map f).toOption == (o.toOption map f))

val prop_get = forAll((o: Optional[Int]) =>
o.isDefined ==>
(o.get == o.toOption.get))

val prop_flatMap = forAll((o: Optional[Int], f: Int => Optional[String]) =>
(o flatMap f).toOption == (o.toOption flatMap (f(_).toOption)))

val prop_mapAgain = forAll ((o: Optional[Int], f: Int => String) =>
(o mapAgain f).toOption == (o map f).toOption)

val prop_getOrElse = forAll ((o: Optional[Int], n: Int) =>
(o getOrElse n) == (o.toOption getOrElse n))

val prop_filter = forAll ((o: Optional[Int], f: Int => Boolean) =>
(o filter f).toOption == (o.toOption filter f))

val prop_exists = forAll ((o: Optional[Int], f: Int => Boolean) =>
(o exists f) == (o.toOption exists f))

val prop_forall = forAll ((o: Optional[Int], f: Int => Boolean) =>
(o forall f) == (o.toOption forall f))

val prop_foreach = forAll ((o: Optional[Int], f: Int => Unit, n: Int) => {
var x: Int = n
var y: Int = x

o foreach (t => x = x + t)
o.toOption foreach (t => y = y + t)

x == y
})

val prop_isDefined = forAll ((o: Optional[Int]) =>
(o.isDefined) == (o.toOption.isDefined))

val prop_isEmpty = forAll ((o: Optional[Int]) =>
o.isEmpty == o.toOption.isEmpty)

val prop_orElse = forAll ((o: Optional[Int], p: Optional[Int]) =>
(o orElse p).toOption == (o.toOption orElse p.toOption))

val prop_toLeft = forAll ((o: Optional[Int], n: Int) =>
(o toLeft n) == (o.toOption toLeft n))

val prop_toRight = forAll ((o: Optional[Int], n: Int) =>
(o toRight n) == (o.toOption toRight n))

val prop_toList = forAll ((o: Optional[Int]) =>
o.toList == o.toOption.toList)

val prop_iterator = forAll ((o: Optional[Int]) =>
o.iterator sameElements o.toOption.iterator)

// *** READ THIS COMMENT FIRST ***
// Note that scala.Option has no such equivalent to this method
// Therefore, reading this test may give away clues to how it might be solved.
// If you do not wish to spoil it, look away now and follow the
// instruction in the Exercise comment.
val prop_applic = forAll ((o: Optional[Int => String], p: Optional[Int]) =>
(p applic o).toOption ==
(for(f <- o.toOption;
n <- p.toOption)
yield f(n)))

val props =
List(
prop_map,
prop_get,
prop_flatMap,
prop_mapAgain,
prop_getOrElse,
prop_filter,
prop_exists,
prop_forall,
prop_foreach,
prop_isDefined,
prop_isEmpty,
prop_orElse,
prop_toLeft,
prop_toRight,
prop_toList,
prop_iterator,
prop_applic
)

/*
\$ scala -classpath .:scalacheck_2.8.0-1.8-SNAPSHOT.jar TestOptional
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
+ OK, passed 100 tests.
*/
def main(args: Array[String]) {
props foreach (_.check)
}
}